Category Archives: Explainer

Truth behind Obiano’s wife, Bianca Ojukwu’s fight.


Facts about the fight that ensued between the wife of former governor of Anambra State, Ebelechukwu Obiano and Bianca, the widow of late Chief Emeka Ojukwu, have emerged.

Noble Reporters Media earlier reported that the duo engaged in a physical combat on Thursday during the swearing-in ceremony of Governor Charles Soludo at the state’s government house.

According to Vanguard, the fight began when the former governor’s wife, who was said to have had issues with Bianca, called her a witch.

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She was said to have walked up to Bianca and engaged her in a conversation which led to the fight.

“What are you doing here? You said we will never win the governorship and here you are. You are a witch” Ebelchukwu Obiano told Bianca Ojukwu.

Irked with the statement, Bianca instantly slapped her and a fight ensued between them at the VIP stand.

Video of the incident is currently trending on all social media platforms as some Nigerians opined that Mrs. Obiano deserved more than the slap.



What happens if Russia fails to pay its debts.


Russia is due to pay $117 million in interest on two dollar-denominated sovereign bonds on Wednesday – the first such payments since its invasion of Ukraine sparked a raft of sanctions from Western capitals and countermeasures from Moscow.

Russia’s finance ministry said on Monday it had sent an order to a correspondent bank for the payment of coupons on eurobonds amounting to $117.2 million due on Wednesday.

The diplomatic standoff and economic curbs have sparked questions over whether and how Russia will make the payment, raising the specter of its first major external debt default since 1917, when Bolsheviks failed to recognize Tsarist debt in the wake of the revolution.

Here is what we know and do not know about Russia’s debt and its repayment:

How much does Russia owe in hard currency bonds?
Russia has 15 international bonds with a face value of around $40 billion outstanding, around half of them held by international investors.

The coupons on March 16 are the first of several, with another $615 million due over the rest of the month. The first principal payment is due on April 4 when a $2 billion bond matures.

The bonds themselves have been issued with a mix of terms and indentures. Bonds sold after Russia was sanctioned over its 2014 annexation of Crimea contain a provision for alternative currency payments. For bonds listed after 2018, the ruble is listed as an alternative currency option.

The bonds linked to Wednesday’s coupon payment were listed in 2013 and are to be paid in U.S. dollars, with Citi as the paying agent.

Fitch Ratings said on Tuesday that if the payments were done in rubles, it would constitute a sovereign default if not corrected after a 30-day grace period.

According to the bonds’ prospectus, payment in other currency would only be effective after the recipients exchange that currency amount for dollars, and at the dollar amount recoverable in the open market.

Citi declined to comment.

Will Moscow pay?
Sanctions have been biting hard, especially the freezing of the central bank currency reserves, with Moscow initially balking at the prospect of sending scarce hard currency to foreign investors.

A presidential decree on March 5 announced that Russian debtors have the right to pay foreign creditors in rubles and by putting their funds in a Type C account at the national depository. However, the central bank and finance ministry can make exceptions.

Subsequent statements have been more nuanced and seemingly allow hard currency payments. The finance ministry said in a statement on Monday that it had approved a temporary procedure to make FX payments and that Russia would fulfill obligations “in a timely manner and in full.”

However, if foreign banks fail to execute the payments, Russia could withdraw the funds and pay them in rubles into an account at the national depository.

Will investors be able to receive the money?
Sanctions from both sides mean it has become more complicated for Russia to transfer the funds, but also for foreign investors to receive them.

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The U.S. Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) issued a general license on March 2 that authorizes transactions for U.S. persons with regards to “the receipt of interest, dividend or maturity payments in connection with debt or equity” issued by Russia’s finance ministry, central bank or national wealth fund. However, that exemption runs out on May 25 with Russia due to pay nearly $2 billion on its external sovereign bonds after that deadline and until year-end.

What is the prospect of a Russian default?
A Russian external debt default seemed unthinkable with its international bonds trading above par until well into February.

Harsh sanctions have changed all that and now bonds hover at distressed levels, some barely at a tenth of their face value.

Most payments due – like the one on Wednesday – have a 30-day grace period during which Russia has time to make the payment. Some issues have a 15-day grace period. Unlike some of Russia’s other external bonds, which have alternative payment provisions in the small print, the coupons due on Wednesday have to be paid in U.S. dollars.

Failure to pay them in full or paying in another currency would lead to a default by the end of the grace period, according to analysts.

What would be the consequences of a default?
Countries in default have no access to international capital markets, though given current restrictions, Russia is shut out of markets anyway.

However, a default could have consequences far and wide.

It could trigger Russian debt default insurance policies known as Credit Default Swaps (CDS) that investors take out for this kind of situation. Investment bank JPMorgan estimates there are roughly $6 billion worth of outstanding CDS that would need to be paid out.

Furthermore, it is not just international asset managers who are exposed to Russia’s external debt. “Many Russian investors bought this paper via their accounts in Western banks,” said Evgeny Suvorov, Russia-based economist at CentroCredit Bank. “There is a large suspicion that it’s specifically Russian investors that are the main bondholders of sovereign external debt.”

Russian banks could also be in trouble with the bonds making up part of their capital buffers.

Being under the jurisdiction of a defaulted sovereign adds to pressure on Russian corporates, which have frequently used international capital markets to raise financing and have nearly $100 billion in hard currency bonds outstanding.

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Why APC can’t hold March 26 national convention.


Contrary to expectations that the ruling All Progressives Congress (APC) would hold its national convention in two weeks’ time, emerging facts on Thursday suggested many factors that would stop the exercise.

The Governor Mai Mala Buni-led Caretaker Extraordinary Convention Planning Committee (CECPC) had scheduled Saturday, 26th March 2022 for the national convention of the party for the purpose of electing national officials.

But DAILY POST reliably gathered on Thursday morning, that, aside from the in-house crisis bedevilling the ruling party, there are other legal and technical impediments standing against the national convention.


Already, the CECPC Chairman, Gov. Buni has been edged out, paving way for the Governor of Niger State, Abubakar Bello, to take over affairs of the party at the national secretariat. He has since inaugurated chairmen of various state chapters of the party.

Aside from court suits emanating from the conduct of state congresses, DAILY POST gathered that a subsisting court order restraining APC from conducting its national convention has not been vacated nor appealed.

A Bwari division of the High Court of the Federal Capital Territory, in suit number FCT/HC/CV/2958/2021, had restrained the ruling party from holding its convention, until a substantive suit has been heard and determined.

The suit, filed by Hon. Salisu Umoru at the court, had the APC, the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) and Governor Buni, as respondents.

“That the 1st Defendant/Respondent can only conduct its national convention after the hearing and determination of the substantive suit pending before this honourable court,” the court order seen by DAILY POST read.


Justice Bello Kawu, also ruled that “in the interest of justice, accelerated hearing of the substantive suit is hereby ordered.

“That this matter is hereby adjourned to the 10th day of January 2022 for hearing of the substantive suit at High Court No. 15, Kubwa, FCT-Abuja.”

Noble Reporters Media also gathered that the court had recently adjourned a hearing of the substantive matter to March 30, when the party shall know its fate on whether to go ahead with its national convention or not.

This development has unsettled some governors and leaders of the party.

The implications of this unappealed judgement and the limited timeframe given by the INEC’s guidelines would spell doom for the party during the 2023 general elections.


With two subsisting judgements in respect to Rivers and Zamfara states APC candidacies in the 2019 general elections, it would now translate to the party not fielding any legitimate candidate in any of the general elections in 2023.

Worried by this development and the impending lacuna, Governor Nasir El-Rufai of Kaduna State, one of the arrowheads in the engine room of the APC, confirmed that the court order was a waiting calamity against the party in 2023.

Speaking on Wednesday in an interview with Channels Television, El-Rufai said the court order was a “hidden nuclear weapon” designed to destroy the party’s chances in the 2023 general election.

“This court order was obtained in November. A member of the party went to court to say that there must be no convention until his case against the party is disposed of, which can take months or years,” El-Rufai said.

The fact remains that, the court order restraining INEC and the APC/CECPC is still in force and valid until it is vacated. As of Thursday morning, two weeks to the planned convention, the order had not been vacated.


Another hidden factor that may impede the conduct of the election was a section in the newly passed and signed amendment to the Electoral Act.

Section 82(1) of the Electoral Act 2022 (as amended), reads: “Every registered political party shall give the Commission at least 21 days’ notice of any Convention, Congress, Conference or Meeting convened for the purpose of ‘merger’ and electing members of the executive committee, other governing bodies or nominating candidates for any of the elective offices specified under this Act”

The simple interpretation of this clause means that, after the order is vacated, APC/CECPC needs to give INEC 21 days’ notice that it wants to conduct a national convention. Today is 10th March, the order still subsists, already making a notice of 21 days for convention impossible.

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With INEC having published an elections timetable, the APC is now under pressure to meet stipulated timelines, failing which it may not be able to field candidates in the 2023 general elections.

Already, the inglorious manner in which Buni was ousted is currently causing disharmony amongst the Progressive Governors.

Why Christians give up all they love and “wear Ash to celebrate Ash Wednesday.”


That could be a bit startling, unless you know the meaning behind this religious practice. The ash is placed there by a priest or minister in the shape of a cross as a symbol acknowledging sin. This is also a time Catholics fast.

The six-week Lenten period culminates with Easter, when Christians believe Jesus died and was resurrected. This year, Ash Wednesday falls on March 2, 2022, six and a half weeks before Easter.

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Here is what you should know about Ash Wednesday and the celebration of Lent.

What is Ash Wednesday?
Ash Wednesday – officially known as the Day of Ashes – is a day of repentance, when Christians confess their sins and profess their devotion to God.


During a Mass, a priest places the ashes on a worshiper’s forehead in the shape of a cross. The ceremony, which also can be performed by a minister or pastor, is meant to show that a person belongs to Jesus Christ, and it also represents a person’s grief and mourning for their sins – the same sins that Christians believe Jesus Christ gave his life for when he died on the cross.

Ash Wednesday is important because it marks the start of the Lenten period leading up to Easter, when Christians believe Jesus was resurrected.

The ashes symbolize both death and repentance. During this period, Christians show repentance and mourning for their sins, because they believe Christ died for them.

When the priest applies the cross of ashes, he says to the worshiper: ““Remember that you are dust, and to dust you shall return.” He also may say “Repent and believe in the Gospel.”


It is not required that a worshiper wear the ashes for the rest of the day, although many Christians choose to do so. However, dining out or doing non-essential shopping are considered inappropriate on Ash Wednesday.

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The Rev. Tom Kryder-Reid, right, signs the cross of ashes on the forehead of Siara Reyes, as others wait their turn, on Ash Wednesday “Ashes On The Go!” offered at Christ Church Cathedral on Monument Circle, on Feb. 14, 2018. People could come up to receive the ashes and head on their way.

Where do the ashes come from?
Traditionally, ashes used on Ash Wednesday are gathered up after palms from the previous year’s Palm Sunday are burned. They are then blessed before being used in the ceremony.


Palms are used on Palm Sunday in many Christian churches to symbolize Jesus’ triumphant entry into Jerusalem on the Sunday before his crucifixion. Residents of Jerusalem are said to have waved palm fronds to celebrate his arrival.

Can Catholics eat meat on Ash Wednesday?
No. Catholics are not supposed to eat meat on Ash Wednesday. They also are expected to give up meat on Fridays during Lent.

Catholics also are expected to fast on Ash Wednesday. Fasting means consuming only one full meal a day; two smaller meals that don’t together add up to a full meal also are allowed.

Children and the elderly are exempt from the fasting requirement on Ash Wednesday and during Lent.


Some Protestant denominations, including Anglicans, Episcopalians, Lutherans, United Methodists and Presbyterians, also hold worship services on Ash Wednesday.

Is Ash Wednesday based on a pagan festival?
No. Early Christians in Rome were sprinkled with ashes during Lent, but the Ash Wednesday practice of placing ashes on the forehead of Christians didn’t begin until the Middle Ages.

When is Ash Wednesday in 2022?
Ash Wednesday falls on a different day each year, because it is dependent on the date of Easter. It can occur as early as Feb. 4 or as late as March 10.


This year, Ash Wednesday will be celebrated on Wednesday, March 2.

Ash Wednesday always occurs six and a half weeks before Easter. So, Easter will be celebrated earlier this year, too, on Sunday, April 17.

What is Lent?
Ash Wednesday is one of the most important dates on the Christian calendar, because it marks the start of Lent.

Lent is a six-week period of fasting or self-sacrifice, prayer and almsgiving observed by Christians each year to prepare for the celebration of Easter, when they believe Christ rose from the dead to sit at the right hand of God, his father.


Lent is celebrated over 46 days. It includes 40 days of fasting and six Sundays, on which fasting is not practiced.

The 40-day period has a special significance in the Old and New Testaments. For instance, Moses spent 40 days and nights with God on Mount Sinai in preparation to receive the Ten Commandments. Jesus also is depicted as being led into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil for 40 days.

Things to give up for Lent
Many people want to know what they should give up for Lent to prove your devotion.

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Many people give up things that they love, such as candy or sweets, favorite foods, television or – gasp! – social media.

The reason for their self-sacrifice: Christians want to replicate the hardships felt by Jesus during his time in the wilderness.

A previous version of this story originally published in 2019.

By: Adigun Michael Olamide


Reason Buhari has 12 million votes before elections – Femi Adesina.


The presidency has restated that President Muhammadu Buhari usually have at least 12 million votes waiting for him in different parts of the country before elections due to numerous followers.

A statement by Mr Femi Adesina, Special Adviser to President Buhari on Media and Publicity said the President enjoys such love from electorates following his good gesture towards poor and vulnerable Nigerians.

According to Adesina, President Buhari has several programmes that touch the lives of millions of Nigerians, including the Internally Displaced Persons, IDPs, in various camps across the country.


He said, “It is often said that the man already has at least 12 million votes waiting for him in different parts of the country before the first ballot is cast in general elections. The poor and the vulnerable constitute this large army of voters. They swarm round him, as bees do to the honeypot.

“There is distribution of food and non-food items to the poor and vulnerable across the country, collaboration with States to return and resettle IDPs in their communities of origin, and cooperation with National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP) on routine repatriation of Nigerians stranded abroad. About 17,242 of such cases have been handled.

“Now you know why President Buhari always has that standby 12 million votes. He cares for the poor and lowly. Whence comest another? They don’t seem to make them like this anymore”.


Credit Suisse handled ‘dirty money’ for decades: Giant Leaks.

Still reeling from losing billions of dollars last year, Switzerland’s second-biggest bank has just been dealt another blow: A massive leak of data claiming it handled billions of dollars of dirty money for decades.

Switzerland’s financial watchdog said Monday it was in contact with Credit Suisse, which “strongly” rejected the allegations of wrongdoing after dozens of media outlets published results of new cross-border, Panama Papers-style investigations into a leak of data on thousands of accounts held at the bank in the past decades.

The investigation, which broke Sunday, was coordinated by the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP) and involved 48 different media outlets worldwide including France’s Le Monde and The Guardian in Britain.

Dubbed “Suisse Secrets” by the OCCRP, the inquiry began when an anonymous source shared bank data with the German newspaper Suddeutsche Zeitung more than a year ago.

The investigation showed that Credit Suisse had flouted international banking rules by holding funds linked to crime and corruption over several decades, wrote Le Monde.

Among the allegations were accusations that the bank’s clients included criminals, dictators, human rights abusers and businesspeople who had been placed under sanctions.

Credit Suisse rejected the “allegations and insinuations,” saying in a statement that many of the issues raised were historical, some dating back more than 70 years.

The leak included information on more than 18,000 bank accounts dating back to the 1940s and up to the end of the 2010 decade, said the OCCRP. It was the largest leak ever from a major Swiss bank, it added.

“We are aware of the articles,” a spokesperson for the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority (FINMA) told Reuters.

“Compliance with money laundering regulations has been a focus of our supervisory activities for years now,” FINMA added.

The New York Times said the accounts collectively held more than $100 billion at their highest point. The sums held in accounts identified as problematic amount to more than $8 billion in assets, the investigation found.

The German daily Sueddeutsche Zeitung said it received the data anonymously through a secure digital mailbox over a year ago. It said it’s unclear whether the source was an individual or a group, and the newspaper didn’t make any payment or promises.

It said the data points to the bank having accepted “corrupt autocrats, suspected war criminals and human traffickers, drug dealers and other criminals” as customers.

The media outlets analyzed the leaked data from 30,000 Credit Suisse clients from all over the world.

The accounts included those held by a human trafficker in the Philippines, a Hong Kong stock exchange boss jailed for bribery, a billionaire who ordered the murder of his Lebanese pop star girlfriend and executives who looted Venezuela’s state oil company, as well as corrupt politicians from Egypt to Ukraine.

Shares in Credit Suisse, which had already been under pressure after a series of risk-management scandals and a 1.6 billion Swiss franc loss in 2021, pared initial losses to trade marginally lower in early trading.

“For CS (Credit Suisse), even if the allegations are unfounded, this raises questions about its business practices in wealth management and should tie up management having to spend time fighting fires instead of moving forward,” RBC analysts said.

Tendentious interpretations’
“Credit Suisse strongly rejects the allegations and insinuations about the bank’s purported business practices,” the bank said in a statement issued on Sunday night in response to the consortium’s reports.

It said the matters presented are “predominantly historical” and that “the accounts of these matters are based on partial, inaccurate, or selective information taken out of context, resulting in tendentious interpretations of the bank’s business conduct.”

The bank said it had received “numerous inquiries” from the consortium in the past three weeks and reviewed many of the accounts in question.

It said it had reviewed a large number of accounts potentially associated with the allegations, and about 90% of them “are today closed or were in the process of closure prior to receipt of the press inquiries, of which over 60% were closed before 2015.”

“Of the remaining active accounts, we are comfortable that appropriate due diligence, reviews and other control-related steps were taken in line with our current framework. We will continue to analyze the matters and take additional steps if necessary.”

The OCCRP, in a statement on its website, said: “We believe the dozens of examples we have cited raise serious questions about Credit Suisse’s effectiveness and commitment to meeting its responsibilities.”

It said the investigation had found dozens of “dubious characters” in the data, including some linked to government officials.

Among those listed as holding accounts with Credit Suisse were the sons of Egypt’s former autocratic President Hosni Mubarak and Jordan’s King Abdullah II.

When asked why so many of these accounts existed, current and former Credit Suisse employees described a work culture that incentivized taking on risk to maximize profits, according to OCCRP.

“I’ve too often seen criminals and corrupt politicians who can afford to keep on doing business as usual, no matter what the circumstances, because they have the certainty that their ill-gotten gains will be kept safe and always within their reach,” said Paul Radu, OCCRP co-founder, in a statement.

Series of setbacks
Switzerland has sought in recent years to shed its image as a haven for tax evasion, money laundering and the embezzlement of government funds, practices carried out through the misuse of its banking secrecy policies. But those laws still draw criticism.

The Sueddeutsche Zeitung published an excerpt from a statement by the source of the leak.

“I believe that Swiss banking secrecy laws are immoral,” it said. “The pretext of protecting financial privacy is merely a fig leaf covering the shameful role of Swiss banks as collaborators of tax evaders.”

The international investigation is the latest in a series of setbacks that Credit Suisse has suffered recently.

In March 2021, the bank was hit by the collapse of Greensill Capital in which it had committed some $10 billion through four funds. The implosion of the U.S. fund Archegos cost it more than $5 billion.

And in Switzerland, a former Credit Suisse employee is among the defendants in a major corruption trial that has just started and involves alleged money laundering and organized crime in Bulgaria. The bank has said it will “defend itself vigorously in court.”

Experts say draconian banking secrecy laws in Switzerland effectively silence insiders or journalists who may want to expose wrongdoing within a Swiss bank, according to OCCRP.

A Swiss media group was unable to participate in the investigation due to the risk of criminal prosecution, the organization said.

Climate Council to determine Turkey’s zero-emission, green goals.

The Climate Council, which started on Monday and will continue until Friday in the central Konya province, will provide a basis for Turkey’s 2053 zero-emission and green development strategic goals.

“As humanity, we are at the last juncture. These are the last 10 years we have to change the state of affairs and we are the last generation to take advantage of this. Our cities are fighting rising sea levels, fires, droughts, water stress and other negative events that grow by the day,” Environment, Urbanism and Climate Change Minister Murat Kurum said during his speech at the council.

He pointed out that people have started migrating due to the impacts of climate change in the form of rising sea levels, fires and drought. It is estimated that around 216 million people will have relocated by 2050 to escape disasters. He added that climate migration of this magnitude will change the demographic structure of many countries, bringing with it many problems that will prove hard to solve.

“No state has the power to stop these social explosions, these huge disasters on its own. The world faces a critical threshold – this is to hold global warming at 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit),” he said. He added that to reach this target, carbon emissions need to be reduced by 45% by 2030 and must reach net-zero by 2050. All countries need to reduced their emissions by 7.6% per year to reach the goal by 2030.

‘Turkey faces high risk from climate change’
Speaking on Turkey’s situation, Kurum said that due to the country’s location in the Mediterranean basin, it is among the countries with the highest risk in terms of the effects of global climate change. He reminded that Turkey last year faced extraordinary fires, floods and landslides at unprecedented levels.

“Climate change, in terms of its results, is no longer an issue of solely the environment, geophysics and ecology. It has become an issue of economy, finance and social policies and has turned into a question of development,” the minister emphasized.

Kurum stated that Turkey is not responsible for the state of climate change today but that the country has a sense of responsibility about what needs to be done in the future.

“As a necessity of this consciousness, we ratified the Paris Climate Agreement at the parliament’s general assembly on Oct. 6, 2021.”

The council is taking place in Konya, which is one of the provinces most affected by the negative consequences of climate change. It will bring together more than 1,000 participants, including climate ambassadors of 209 universities, celebrities and mayors as well as experts.

Konya has faced drought, aridity, huge sinkholes and the risk of losing its lakes, the minister elaborated.

This council will also contribute to the climate legislation that will be developed as well as the basic policies for a road map on the decreasing of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to climate change.

The Climate Law, Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and the Long-term Climate Change and Action Plan will be completed based on the results of the council.

Meetings will be held on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the fields of energy, industry and transportation; the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture, waste, buildings and AKAKDO (land use, the change of land use and forestry); green financing and carbon pricing; adaptation to climate change; local administration; migration, fair transition and social policies and science and technology.

The minister also headed a session for youth and the climate ambassadors of several universities. The ambassadors then created a climate memorandum in which they voiced the demands and requests of the youth. The ambassadors asked for a transparent and participative process regarding their demands, which included raising awareness about the climate and environment through education, social and cultural projects, supporting research and development efforts in this regard, understanding the role of fragile groups and the effects climate change could have on them, not allowing investments that could negatively affect people’s health, planning for the treatment and adaptation of illnesses brought on by climate change and focusing on efforts to renew areas affected by natural disasters through ecological restoration.

Environment, Urbanism and Climate Change Minister Murat Kurum speaks at the Youth Session of the Climate Council in the central Konya province, Turkey, Feb.21, 2022. (AA Photo)

Environment, Urbanism and Climate Change Minister Murat Kurum speaks at the Youth Session of the Climate Council in the central Konya province, Turkey, Feb.21, 2022. (AA Photo)

“Turkey’s National Energy Policy, while decreasing importation dependency through ameliorating the security of supply, is giving priority to make use of renewable energy resources at the maximum. In this regard, we are one of the most successful countries in the world,” the minister said.

‘Industry, transport should lead green drive’

Kurum said that in the upcoming period, Turkey has to further increase the installation of storage, battery and intelligent networks as well as carry production facilities based on renewable energy resources to the highest point. “We have to accelerate efforts on rendering our cities’ energy infrastructures more fruitful and durable.”

The minister highlighted that the industrial sector should prioritize the extension of transition toward green production and the use of renewable energy as well as the use of alternative raw materials and fuel. “The use of green hydrogen should become more widespread in industry fields like iron and steel, cement, petrochemistry. We have to support products produced with alternative raw materials through public procurement,” Kurum said.

For the field of transportation, he said, the use of railways and hybrid vehicles must be increased while implementation of measures such as hydrogen transformation in fuel must become more widespread. He said steps should be taken to increase the popularity of sustainable means of transport such as bicycles, mass transport and other logistical means with zero emissions.

He also touched on the need to decrease the rate of waste, increase the use of renewable energy resources in new buildings and formation of infrastructure to enhance zero energy buildings with green building certificates.

Kurum elaborated that the efforts of the center must be reflected in the municipalities on the local level.

“Turkey has a total of 1,390 municipalities. Some of our metropolitan municipalities have been carrying out significant works in terms of reduction and adaptation efforts. We have to strengthen our provincial and district municipalities,” he said.

Indicating that complete mobilization is needed to fight climate change, Kurum said: “Therefore, units planning and administering the fight against climate change must be established in the subunits of local administrations. As of this year, the establishing of climate departments and zero waste directorates has become obligatory. At this point the duty of the council is to put forth ideas to solve the financial problems and legal regulations necessary to render our municipalities more influential.”

Turkey in October became the last country in the G-20 group of major economies to ratify the Paris climate agreement, after demanding for years that it must first be reclassified as a developing country, which would entitle it to funds and technological help.

The goal under the 2015 Paris Agreement is to limit the rise in global temperatures to well below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) above preindustrial levels while pursuing efforts to limit the rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Ankara signed the Paris accord in April 2016 but did not initiate the ratification process, arguing that it should not be deemed a developed country for the purposes of the accord and that it was responsible for a very small share of the historic carbon emissions.

The agreement came into force in Turkey on Nov. 10. Within this framework, Turkey will update its NDC, a climate action plan to cut emissions and adapt to climate impacts that is updated every five years.

Ankara-based senior diplomatic correspondent at Daily Sabah

Why Buhari’s successor should come from South.

The road to Aso Rock is long, expensive, and exhausting. It is chaotic, volatile and unpredictable. It also has a mind of its own. When micro-managed as in Ibrahim Babangida’s transition programme, it descends into chaos; when macro-managed as in Goodluck Jonathan’s 2015 election, it delivers popular candidates.


National elections have always presented the country with something of a quagmire. It is a math problem; a question of numbers say far right Northern politicians. It is a political problem – with all attendant issues of accommodation, peace, justice, equity, and progress. It is a problem that has been solved in different ways, but never resolved.

The real reason behind it is known but it would take too much efforts, too much horse trading, give-and-take or significant changes to arrive at a permanent solution. Inability of any group to win decisive victory in national polls has led to several patchwork, hodgepodge, solutions. Tribal, religious, and regional differences hindered the formation of a truly national Nigerian political party in Nigeria.

Before 1966, the major parties were the Northern People’s Congress (NPC), overwhelmingly dominant in the Northern Region and possessing a plurality in the federal House of Representatives; the National Council of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC), dominant in the Eastern Region and junior partner in coalition with the NPC in the federal House of Representatives; and the Action Group, majority party in the Western Region and the leading opposition group in the federal legislature.

The first alliance between major parties at the centre was after 1959 elections when the NCNC joined in a coalition with the NPC to form the federal government. The December 1964 elections were contested by two political alliances: the Nigerian National Alliance (NNA), led by Sir Ahmadu Bello, premier of the Northern Region, and the United Progressive Grand Alliance (UPGA), led by Michael Okpara, premier of the Eastern Region.


The NNA comprised the NPC, the Western-based Nigerian National Democratic Party, and opposition parties representing ethnic minorities in the Eastern and Mid-Western regions. The UPGA included the NCNC, the Action Group, the Northern Elements Progressive Union and the United Middle Belt Congress – a non-Muslim party strongly opposed to the NPC.

That election was marred by riggings and boycotts. But on January 4, 1965, President Azikiwe called on Prime Minister Balewa to form a new government. This was followed by announcement of an enlarged and reorganised cabinet on March 31. Some months later, the Balewa government was overthrown, the military assumed power, and on May 24, 1966 all political parties were banned.

When legal political activity resumed in 1978, five parties emerged: the National Party of Nigeria (NPN), the Nigerian People’s Party (NPP), the Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN), the People’s Redemption Party, and the Great Nigeria People’s Party. NPN received the most votes (33.9%), and UPN second with (29.2%). In National Assembly elections, NPN won 36 of the 95 Senate seats and 168 of 440 House of Representatives seats. The UPN came second with 28 Senate Seats and 111. The NPP came third with 16 and 78 House of Representative seats.

In the presidential election of August 1983, the NPN won a second four-year term, winning 47 per cent of votes cast, and the UPN placed second with 31 per cent of the votes. The election was marred by riggings and irregularities. The government was overthrown four months later and all existing political parties were dissolved.


Babangida’s transition programme which began in 1987 introduced the big man or godfather syndrome into our politics without resolving any of the fundamental problems. He created two parties, the right-of-center National Republican Convention (NRC) and a left-of-center Social Democratic Party (SDP) to serve as vehicles for the transition programme. Many politicians either were banned or disqualified in search of the so-called newbreed. Such prominent politicians such as Arthur Nzeribe, Umaru Shinkafi, Adamu Chiroma, Gen. Shehu Yar’Adua, C. C. Onoh, Bola Ige, Jim Nwobodo were prematurely retired. Eventually, two of Babangida’s favourite friends – M.K.O. Abiola and Bashir Tofa emerged the presidential candidates.

On June 12, 1993, Nigerians elected Moshood Abiola, but General Ibrahim Babangida, pressured by politically-minded army officers annulled the election over alleged corruption. All the parties participating in Gen. Sani Abacha’s transition programme were compelled to adopt Abacha as their presidential candidate.

Abacha was the Boss Tweed of Nigerian politics: I don’t care who does the electing, Boss Tweed is rumoured to have once said, so long as I can do the nominating. Control of the nominating process is thus likely to enhance control of the electoral outcome. Boss Magear Tweed, born April 3, 1823 on the Lower East Side of Manhattan is chiefly remembered for the cronyism of his Tammany Hall political machine, through which he bilked the city of New York of massive sums of money.


Political parties, suppressed by the military government, were allowed to form in July 1998. Three parties were registered by the Provisional Ruling Council for participation in local, state and national elections: the All-People’s Party (APP) led by Mahmud Waziri; the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) led by Solomon Lar; and the Alliance for Democracy (AD), led by Ayo Adebanjo.

Gen. Abdulsalami’s government acting in concert with former senior military officials influenced the contest. The government teleguided Obasanjo’s candidacy from prison to presidency. It also ensured that the winner of the APP’s presidential ticket, Professor Ogbonnaya Onu, stepped down for Chief Olu Falae. The APP national hierarchy side-stepped Dr Ogbonnaya Onu, who won the party’s presidential primaries, and presented Shinkafi, as Vice-Presidential candidate, to the AD/APP Accord. Going into the accord, AD had six states while APP had nine states.

However, the APP chose to be the junior partner in line with the government’s decision to cede power to the South-West to assuage the zone over the annulled June 12, 1993 presidential poll won by late Chief MKO Abiola, a south-westerner. Pursuant to that objective, Onu was deprived of his mandate and Obasanjo was granted waivers on PDP’s rule that every candidate must win his ward, local government and state to be eligible to contest for the party’s presidential ticket. Had these gentlemen approached the courts, our political journey might have turned out differently and subsequent elections would not have been decided by one man – Gen. Obasanjo.


In the February 1999 election, Obasanjo (PDP) won 62.8 per cent of the vote; Olu Falae (AD/APP), got 37.2 per cent. In the Senate, the PDP won 66 seats, the APP 23, and the AD 19 seats. In the House of Representatives, the PDP took 215 seats, the APP 70, and the AD 66 seats. International observers reported some flaws, but generally approved the results.

The past and current arrangements are merely patch work or partial and temporary solutions. We have never had a well-coordinated effort to resolve the problem, but rather a haphazard conglomeration of small fixes.

Let’s be clear, this country is very sensitive to manipulation of presidential elections. Rigging and ballot snatching, poor selection of candidates have been the immediate and remote causes of coups. Rigged national elections was the invitation to the military in 1966, 1983; tampering with the result of 1993 elections was the invitation to Abacha’s coup. Refusal to conduct national elections was the invitation to Murtala Mohammed’s coup. We need to devise a formula that gives everyone, every tribe and every religion a fair shot at Presidency. Time to do it is now that democratic governments of West Africa neighbours are being taken over by military coups. No nation is immuned. Fairness and equity is the antidote.


Devising a formula for national elections is a critical issue that isn’t going away: the question of power sharing, accommodation, equity, fairness, and justice to all constituent parts of the nation. In fact, this is an issue that all presidential candidates should be talking about because we now know that there are viable alternatives to our presidential election playbook.

The current efforts by the National Assembly as contained in the new electoral law awaiting for the president’s signature — direct voting, consensus candidacy, indirect or delegates elections — while they make for good politics, will not make a substantial dent on the real problem, which entails giving everybody a sense of belonging. And unless the proponents of open nationwide, all-comers ticket explain why this principle is good for presidency and unsuitable for JAMB, Unity Schools and other places operating under the Federal Character, it should be jettisoned. What is good for the goose, is good for the gander.

Getting a permanent solution will be heavy lifting, back-breaking work, but the alternative is a mess. It has been expensive, inefficient and a huge source of instability in the polity. Absence of popular leadership has been is a major cause of our backwardness; we simply have been trying to glue plastic leaves to a diseased tree with multiple amendments. It is time to revisit the proposal for rotation of the presidency. The old playbook just won’t do, neither would big man imposition.

Maybe because, every region deserves a go at the presidency; maybe because the proposal will bring peace, justice and equity; maybe because every region has qualified candidates for the post of President. Whatever it is, rotational presidency is the answer; it is time for a Southern President.


It is obvious that our democracy is still in crisis. Our political parties are dysfunctional and our politics have become depressingly acrimonious. But 2023 could deliver one of those longshot popular candidates in the mold of Abiola if this radical experiment in democracy is embraced.
Babangida’s administration threw up two sets of soldiers who became kingmakers whose claim to power came from dominating and subordinating the country by winning the civil war and violently toppling the governments. Those whose claim came from winning the war were Generals Obasanjo, Murtala, Yar’Adua and Danjuma; the coup plotters were Babangida, Sani Abacha, Abdulsalami and David Mark.

Whatever your prediction of 2023 election, one obvious fact is that the state of play suggests that the system is in a state of flux. And here’s the good news: Obasanjo will not be on the ballot, Babangida will not be on the ballot, Danjuma will not be on the ballot; no soldier will be on the 2023 presidential ballot. So, besides Buhari, the strong man or big man’s influence has all but evaporated.

Another good news is that President Buhari is not a coup plotter; anybody who suggests that he sabotages his own transition would earn his wrath. On his watch, All Progressives Congress has lost “safe seats” in Edo and Anambra government houses. Even Soludo, stopped twice by Jonathan, was allowed to win under the current dispensation. Buhari’s style is “hands-off”, just what the hardworking Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) officials under the leadership of Professor Mahmood Yakubu needs to deliver a free and fair election that will not bring soldiers back to Aso Rock.


Yes, we are a long way from when Segun Adeniyi as Spokesman for Yar’Adua congratulated opposition candidates. That otherwise common gesture was once seen as revolutionary.

We have come a long way from when Abdulsalami took Obasanjo from prison to presidency with Obasanjo kicking and screaming: “how many presidents do you want to make out of me?”

If Buhari does not anoint a candidate, it is not because he lacks the power or clout to do so, but because it is not in his nature to subvert the peoples mandate – he’s a man whose word is his bond. Since he announced that he was not interested in Third Term, the sycophants quickly put away their drums. Obasanjo and Danjuma – men who knew him intimately – have described him as inflexible. If Buhari ever anoints a successor, then it is because he was swayed by the cabal around him; because he listened to the Governors’ forum – dictators in party attires – who had usurped the powers of their parties National Executive Committees.


It is a problem of having the wrong mindset; not being able to rise above your environment. Civilian governors raised in military culture have been calling on the president to select a candidate. Take Chimaroke Nnamani, for example, he has called on Governor Ifeanyi Ugwuanyi of Enugu State to announce his successor; same way he announced Sullivan Chime as his successor; same way Jim Nwobodo announced him as Governor of Enugu State. Nigeria’s democracy does not require of its participants any democratic credentials.

To be fair, a tap on the shoulder from the party and a clear path to the nomination is not an entirely strange method of nominating officers for elective positions. In 1946, Samuel F. Pryor, a top Pan-Am executive and a mover in Connecticut Republican politics, called Prescott Bush, patriarch of the Bush dynasty and a prominent local businessman, to ask whether he might like to run for Congress. ‘If you would,’ Pryor said, ‘I think we can assure you that you’ll be the nominee.’

In 2007, Obasanjo single-handedly crowned Yar’Adua as president. Single handedly made Jonathan Vice President and later got his clique to endorse him as president; he single handedly stopped Abubakar Atiku presidential ambition; and he was part of the group that made Buhari president after shredding his PDP membership card. Scandalous as these may appear, they are admissible political acts.


Party bigwigs and their proxies play a central role in recruiting candidates, grooming them for office, and thereby defining what political scientists call political viability – ability to win and fitness to serve. That system gives party leaders and elected officials strong influence over who would ultimately serve, and recent evidence suggests that the system did well at finding and placing office-holders of high quality.

This important role has been abandoned by governors and politicians who daily call on the president to choose a successor for over 200 million Nigerians. While party elders in 2022 hope for a rational outcome, however, nothing in the current process guarantees one. The mandarins are either hoping that Buhari will select or anoint a candidate, or that the voters will coalesce around a candidate with a traditional résumé and broad appeal. These are not normal times and the old presidential playbook just won’t work.

A lot of politicians are out of touch with a large part of the population as shown by the call, in some quarters, for the parties to jettison the rotational presidency. In the current dispensation, the North has ruled twice, not just from the same region, but the same state. No thought or consideration was given to North Central and North East. The South has shown more accommodation; its presidents came from South West and South South. But truth be told, these were not planned, it happened at the whims and caprices of Obasanjo and his clique.


Anyone conversant with South South would attest that in an open contest, Jonathan would not have emerged. His resume before he was tapped to be vice president was lackluster and uninspiring. He was not a frontline South South Politician.

Obasanjo too despite his eminent history, may not have emerged so easily. Truth be said, he had a towering presence, national and worldwide connections. The North also remembered him as fearful and pliant, someone who will easily do its bidding. Unfortunately, Obasanjo two was markedly different from Obasanjo one.

If one man dominated the politics of this republic, that man is Obasanjo. He was chosen by the Babangida/Danjuma clique, but he chose YarAdua, chose Jonathan, and he chose Buhari. Now he has publicly announced his retirement from politics, the parties and politicians seem clueless as how to organise presidential elections. But where to begin is to return to their constitutions (PDP has rotation enshrined in its constitution); to empower their organs to play their proper roles (APC should abandon unelected caretaker committees and stop pressuring Buhari to play unconstitutional roles). It is time to play by the rules. Somebody please give them the script on rotational presidency.